earth, mars, plants


SyNRGE collaborates with several organzations having published over 150 scientific articles in areas of plant nutrition, space biology, LED lighting, and controlled environment agriculture.

SyNRGE has collaborated with several organizations and published over 150 scientific articles. We are always looking for new partners to help us further our mission of growing plants in space to feeding people on Earth. If you are interested in collaborating with us, please reach out. We would be happy to discuss potential projects with you.


Russell, J., P. DeLeon, and G.W. Stutte. (2022). Evaluation of Candidate Crop Plant Lactuca Sativa in Biologically Enhanced Martian Regolith. ICES-2022-64.

Stutte, G.W., N.C. Yorio, S.L. Edney, J.T. Richards, M.P. Hummerick, M. Stasiak, M. Dixon, and R.M. Wheeler. (2022). Effect of reduced atmospheric pressure on growth and quality of two lettuce cultivars. Life Sciences in Space Research. 34: 37-44

Microbial Metabolism of Amino Acids—Biologically Induced Removal of Glycine and the Resulting Fingerprint as a Potential Biosignature by P Schwendner · 2022


Petra Schwendner , Ann N Nguyen , Andrew C Schuerger  (2021) Use of NanoSIMS to Identify the Lower Limits of Metabolic Activity and Growth by Serratia liquefaciens Exposed to Sub-Zero Temperatures


Spencer, L, M. Hummerick, G.W. Stutte, T. Sirmons, G.T. Graham, G. Massa and R.M. Wheeler. (2019) Dwarf tomato and pepper cultivars for space crops. ICES-2019-164.


Mitchell, C. and G.W. Stutte. (2017). Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled Environment Agriculture. In Lopez,R and E. Runkle (eds). Light management in controlled environments. Meister Media Worldwide

Lunn, G.M., G.W. Stutte, L.E. Spencer, M.E. Hummerick, L. Wong, R.M. Wheeler. 2017. Recovery of nutrients from inedible biomass of tomato and pepper to recycle fertilizer. ICES 2017-6

Lighting the way to the stars, G.W. Stutte

Space Pomology: Dwarf Plums for Fresh Food Production

Preparing for the crewed Mars journey: microbiota dynamics in the confined Mars500 habitat during simulated Mars flight and landing by P Schwendner



Commercial Transition to LEDs: A Pathway to High-value Products

Introducing EDEN ISS – A European project on advancing plant cultivation technologies and operations

ISS Researchers Guide: Plant Science. NASA

Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and- Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

Ragwort: Invasive Weed and Potential Pharmaceutical

Over-expression of FT1 in plum (Prunus domestica ) results in the phenotypes compatible with spacelfith:  A potential new candidate crop for bio-regenerative life support systems. 2015. Grav. Space. Res

Sole-source lighting for controlled environment agriculture. 2015. Lighting up Profits: Understanding Greenhouse Lighting. 


Mutualism within a simulated microgravity environment; Piriformospora indica protmotes the growth of Medicago truncatula. 


Preliminary species and media selection for the Veggie Space Hardware.  2013. Gravitational and Space Research

Plant atrium system for food production in NASA’s Deep Space Habitat tests. 

Microgravity effects on the early events of biological nitrogen fixation in Medicago truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE experiment.


Phytoremediation of indoor air: NASA, Bill Wolverton and the development of an industry. Value Creation of Plants for Future Urban Horticulture

Radish (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) growth, net carbon exchange rate, and transpiration at decreased atmospheric pressure and/or oxygen


Delaying Flowering in Short-Day Strawberry Transplants with Photoselective Nets


Light-emitting diodes for manipulating the phytochrome apparatus.  2009.  HortScience


Red Light Affects Flowering Under Long Days in a Short-day Strawberry Cultivar. 2008. HortScience

Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Enhances Growth and Flavonoid Content of Two Scutellaria species.  2008.  J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Soc. 

Hypobaric chambers for biological life support research: System specifications and response of radish to decrease pressure and oxygen.


Mixed vs. monoculture hydroponic production of salad crops at three CO2 concentrations

Recovery of Nutrients from Inedible Biomass of Tomato and Pepper to Recycle Fertilizer.  2017. ICES 

The Effects of Elevated Root Zone Temperature on the Development and Carbon Partitioning of Spring Wheat


Yields of salad crops grown under potential Lunar or Mars habitat environments: Effect of temperature and lighting intensities ICES SAE Technical Paper

Process and Product:  Recirculating hydroponics and bioactive compounds in a controlled environment

Paecilomycels lilacinus and Fusarium verticilliodides remove t-butanol from contaminated air

Bioactivity of volatile alcohols on the germination and growth of radish seedlings

Microgravity effects on leaf morphology, cell structure, carbon metabolism and mRNA expression of dwarf wheat

Effects of Common ISS Volatile Organic Compounds on Growth of Radish


Plant molecular biology in the space station era: Utilization of KSC fixation tubes with RNAlater

Crop Production in an Extraterrestrial (Controlled-Environment, Microgravity) Environment

Advanced life support project: Crop experiments at Kennedy Space Center

Microgravity does not alter plant stand gas exchange of wheat at moderate light levels and saturating CO2 concentration

Effect of light intensity and temperature on yield of salad crops for space exploration

Potential effects of biogenic compound production on human health in closed life support systems

Characterization of nutrient solution changes during flow through media

Volatile Organic compound analysis (VOCA): A system for evaluating atmospheric contaminants on plant growth

Microgravity effects on thylakoid, single leaf, and whole canopy photosynthesis of dwarf wheat


R.M Wheeler, B.V. Peterson, and G.W. Stutte. 2004. Ethylene Production throughout growth and development of plants. HortScience, 39: 1541-1545.

Stutte, G.W., I. Eraso, and P.A. Fowler. 2004. Effects of Common ISS Volatile Organic Compounds on Growth of Radish. SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2297.

Richards, J.T., S.L. Edney, N.C. Yorio, G.W. Stutte, N.Cranston, R.M. Wheeler and G.D. Goins. 2004. Effects of lighting intensity and supplemental CO2 on yield of potential salad crops for ISS. SAE Technical Paper 2004-01- 2296.

Stutte, G.W., I. Eraso and S. Anderson. 2004. Sensitivity of radish to volatile organic compounds: toluene, ethanol and acetone. Proc PGRSA 31: 55

Liao, J., G. Liu, O. Monje, G.W. Stutte, D. M. Porterfield. 2004 Induction of hypoxic root metabolism results from physical limitations in O2 bioavailablity in microgravity. Adv. Space Res. 34: 1579-1584.


Frazier, C.M, J.B. Simpson, M.S. Roberts, G.W. Stutte, N.D. Fields, J. Melendez-Andrrade, R.C. Morrow. 2003. Bacterial and Fungal Communities in BPS chambers and Root Modules. SAE Technical paper 2003-01-2528.

Yorio, N.C., G.D. Goins, R.M. Wheeler, and G.W. Stutte. 2003 Regulation of Biomass Partitioning in Hydroponically-Grown Potato by Altering Nitrogen Concentrations, PGRSA 30: 163-168.

Eraso, I. G.W. Stutte, E.C. Stryjewski. 2003. Chronic Exposures to Ethylene Induces Stress Symptoms in Radish. In. M. Vendrell et al. (eds). Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant Hormone Ethylene II. IOS Press, pg 94-99

Edney, S.L., N.C. Yorio, G.W. Stutte, O.A. Monje, and R.M. Wheeler. 2003. Comparison of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) growth under high-pressure sodium and cool white fluorescent lamps 2003. PGRSA 30:

Monje, G. W. Stutte, G. D. Goins, D. M. Porterfield and G. E. Bingham. 2003. Farming in space: Environmental and biophysical concerns. Advances in Space Research. V31: 151-167.

Wheeler,R.M.,J.C.Sager,R.P.Prince,W.M.Knott,C.L.Mackowiak,G.W.Stutte,N.C.Yorio,L.M.Ruffe, B.V. Peterson, G.D. Goins, C.R. Hinkle, W.L. Berry. 2003. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support


Stryjewski, E. I. Eraso, and G. Stutte. 2002. Characterization of potential ISS/Space Shuttle Environment conditions and growth and development of R. Sativus: Ground studies for the RASTA Space flight experiment. Proceedings 39th Space Congress. P 167-172.

Stryjewski, E., I. Eraso, and G. Stutte. 2002. Leaf Anatomy of R. sativus exposed to space shuttle/ISS temperature profiles. ICES Technical paper 2002-01-2387.


Darnell, R.L and G.W. Stutte. 2001. Nitrate concentration effects on NO3 uptake and reduction, growth and productivity in strawberry. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125:560-563.

Stutte, G.W. O.M. Monje, G.D. Goins and L.M. Ruffe. 2001. Evapotranspiration and Photosynthesis Characteristics of Two Wheat Cultivars Measured in the Biomass Production Chamber. ICES Technical Paper 2001-01-2180.

Monje, O., G.W. Stutte, H.T. Wang and C.J. Kelly. 2001. NDS Water Pressures Affect Growth Rate by Changing Leaf Area, Not Single Leaf Photosynthesis. ICES. Technical Paper. 2001-01-2277.

Monje, O. J. Garland, and G.W. Stutte. 2001. Factors Controlling Oxygen Delivery in ALS Hydroponic Systems. ICES Technical Paper, 2001-01-2425.

Wheeler, R.M., G.W. Stutte, G.V. Subbarao, and N.C. Yorio. 2001. Plant Growth and Human Life Support for Space Travel. in M. Passarakli (ed): Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology 2nd ed Marcel Dekker, Inc, NY. Pg 925-941. (Book Chapter)

Earlier Publications

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